Juliett is spelled with a tt for French speakers, because they may otherwise treat a single final t as silent. After all of the above study, only the five words representing the letters C, M, N, U, and X were replaced. Atlantic City: International Telecommunication Union. Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions. Pronunciations are somewhat uncertain because the agencies, while ostensibly using the same pronunciations, give different transcriptions, which are often inconsistent from letter to letter. Usage This section needs additional citations for. The Modern Military Alphabet: Everything from Alpha, Bravo, Charlie, Delta, to Zulu Most of us know, or at least have heard of the military alphabet in some way.
In a few instances where none of the 250 words could be regarded as especially satisfactory, it was believed possible to discover suitable replacements. Further studies were conducted that lead to the changing of five words within the alphabet: C, M, N, X, and U. One of the firmest conclusions reached was that it was not practical to make an isolated change to clear confusion between one pair of letters. The drafted version contained sounds the were common in Spanish, French, and English. The same alphabetic code words are used by all agencies, but each agency chooses one of two different sets of numeric code words. Eventually, code words were found and selected that resolved both of these issues. After further modifications were made by various approving agencies, a revised phonetic alphabet began being used in 1951.
In some English versions of the alphabet, one or both of these may have their standard English spelling. The changes stem from the organization that either created, modified, or utilized the alphabet the most, and they are listed below. External links Look up in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. What is the reasoning for this? In addition to the traditional military usage, civilian industry uses the alphabet to avoid similar problems in the transmission of messages by telephone systems. This version is the most familiar version of the military alphabet since it is still in use today. D - Delta The Airline.
Other words were tested and the most intelligible ones were compared with the more desirable lists. Confusion among words like Delta and Extra, and between Nectar and Victor, or the unintelligibility of other words during poor receiving conditions were the main problems. The pronunciation of the digits 3, 4, 5, and 9 differs from standard English — being pronounced tree, fower, fife, and niner. Many reverted back to the original Able Baker alphabet due to these issues. The unusual pronunciation of certain numbers was designed to reduce confusion as well.
The qualifying feature was the likelihood of a code word being understood in the context of others. Also, although all codes for the letters of the alphabet are English words, they are not in general given English pronunciations. Alfa is spelled with an f as it is in most European languages because the English and French spelling alpha would not be pronounced properly by native speakers of some other languages — who may not know that ph should be pronounced as f. The final choice of code words for the letters of the alphabet and for the digits was made after hundreds of thousands of comprehension tests involving 31 nationalities. We hear it being used in war and actions movies, video games, and even in comic books and novels.
Without proper , you may see instead of characters. Conclusion Created out of necessity, the military phonetic alphabet has undergone many changes over the past decades. Civil Aviation Authority United Kingdom. Zebra Zulu Zulu 0 Zero Zero Zero 1 One Wun One 2 Two Too Two 3 Three Thuh-ree Three 4 Four Fo-wer Four 5 Five Fi-yiv Five 6 Six Six Six 7 Seven Seven Seven 8 Eight Ate Eight 9 Nine Niner Niner. Several changes were made to the original version of the spelling alphabet in 1932.
Some words were hard to understand under poor radio communications and some words were hard to differentiate, such as Delta and Extra. For example, it is often used in the retail industry where customer or site details are spoken by telephone to authorize a credit agreement or confirm stock codes , although ad-hoc coding is often used in that instance. In 1941, in order to have a comprehensive way for communications between all military branches, the American alphabet eventually became known as Able Baker. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. However, it remains as one of the most used forms of voice communications across the globe — especially in various agencies where clear and concise radio and telephone communication is a must. Western Union Phonetic Alphabet Letter phonetic letter A Adams B Boston C Chicago D Denver E Easy F Frank G George H Henry I Ida J John K King L Lincoln M Mary N New York O Ocean P Peter Q Queen R Roger S Sugar T Thomas U Union V Victor W William X X-ray Y Young Z Zero Make Your Own Think you can improve upon the above? Pronunciation of code words This article contains phonetic symbols. Strict adherence to the prescribed spelling words is required in order to avoid the problems of confusion that the spelling alphabet is designed to overcome.
International aviation The Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet is used by the for international aircraft communications. Problems were soon found with this list. . According to a report on the subject: The results showed that many of the words in the military lists had a low level of intelligibility, but that most of the deficiencies could be remedied by the judicious selection of words from the commercial codes and those tested by the laboratory. However, since many of the sounds were unique to the English language, a new version of the alphabet was developed in Latin America called the Ana Brazil alphabet. Pronunciation was not defined prior to 1959. The other reason is because some of the previously used code words sounded similar to other code words that were being used.
Several of these documents had revisions, and were renamed. To ensure that a communication that involved numbers were received and understood correctly, the pronunciations of certain numbers were modified to avoid confusion. It is often used in a medical context as well, to avoid confusion when transmitting information. Other British forces adopted the , which is similar to the phonetic alphabet used by the during World War I. Archived from on 6 March 2005. For example, football has a higher chance of being understood than foxtrot in isolation, but foxtrot is superior in extended communication. To change one word involves reconsideration of the whole alphabet to ensure that the change proposed to clear one confusion does not itself introduce others.